Buegers Disease condition is an inflammation of small and medium sized arteries of the legs. Clot formation
and blockage occurs. Buerger's disease (also known as thromboangiitis obliterans ) is an acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet. The obstruction of blood vessels in the hands and feet reduces the availability of blood to the tissues, causes pain and eventually damages or destroys the tissue. The condition is strongly associated with heavy tobacco use, and progression of the disease is closely linked to continued use. The typical presentations are rest pain, unremitting ischemic ulcerations, and gangrene of the digits of hands and feet, and as the disease evolves, the patients may require several surgical amputations. Buerger's disease most commonly affects men between ages 20 and 40, though it's becoming more common in women. There seems to be a genetic link to people of the Orient, Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East, but appears to be rare among African–Americans. About 40 percent of people with this disease also have episodes of inflammation in the veins, particularly in the superficial veins, and the arteries of the feet or legs. TAO is caused by inflammation of the artery wall, along with the development of clots in the small and medium sized arteries of the arms or legs causing the arteries to become blocked. Without blood flow below the inflamed artery or clots, the fingers, toes, and skin tissue do not receive adequate blood.
Buerger's disease, also called thromboangiitis obliterans, is one of the classes of rare diseases and is a disease of the arteries and veins in the arms and legs. x Buerger's disease is rare in the United States, but is more common in the Middle East and Far East. The notion that the condition is linked to tobacco exposure is supported by the fact that the disease is most common in countries with heavy use of tobacco and is perhaps most common among natives of Bangladesh who smoke a specific type of cigarettes, homemade from raw tobacco, called "bidi." Virtually everyone diagnosed with Buerger's disease smokes cigarettes or uses other forms of tobacco, such as chewing tobacco. Quitting all forms of tobacco is the only way to stop Buerger's disease. In modern times it was first described in 1876 by the German pathologist and bacteriologist Carl Friedländer (1847-1887) as arteritis obliterans. Felix von Winiwarter in 1879 described a male patient aged 57. Burger described it in 1908, and later, in 1924, he published a monograph based on the material from 500 patients.
Causes of Buegers Disease
The common Causes of Buegers Disease :
- Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is caused by vasculitis, which is an inflammation (irritation with presence of extra immune cells) of blood vessels
- This leads to the signs and symptoms of Buerger's disease, beginning with pain and weakness in your fingers and toes and advancing to other parts of your arms and legs.
- Buerger's Disease is also known as thromboangiitis obliterans and its precise cause is unknown.
- It almost always affects men aged 20 to 40 years old who have a history of smoking or chewing tobacco.
- Most patients with Buerger's are heavy smokers, but some cases occur in patients who smoke “moderately”; others have been reported in users of smokeless tobacco.
Symptoms of Buegers Disease
Some are common Symptoms of Buegers Disease :
- Intermittent leg pains.
- Leg numbness.
- Often located in the arch of the foot.
- Pain and weakness in your legs and feet or your arms and hands.
- Swelling in your feet and hands.
- Fingers and toes that turn pale when exposed to cold (Raynaud's phenomenon).
- Skin changes or ulcers on hands or feet.
- Hands or feet may be pale , red, or bluish.
- Open sores on your fingers and toes.
Treatment of Buegers Disease
- Use of well-fitting protective footwear to prevent foot trauma and thermal or chemical injury
- This is the most important issue; most cases occur in smokers.
- Physical exercise.
- Early and aggressive treatment of extremity injuries to protect against infections.
- Avoidance of cold environments .
- Surgery to cut the nerves in the affected area (surgical sympathectomy) to control pain.
- Attempts to increase circulation may include warmth and gentle exercise.
- If an affected individual continues to smoke they're very likely to need amputation of toes and/or fingers.
- Low cholesterol diet.