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Cystitis is a condition where the urinary bladder is infected by bacteria. Children and men can also get cystitis, but this is uncommon. People with interstitial cystitis have a bladder wall that is inflamed and irritated (red and sore). This inflammation can scar the bladder or make it stiff. Whereas an infection can cause an inflamed area in the bladder, inflammation in the bladder cannot cause infection and can occur without infection being present.

Cystitis is a condition that results in recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and the surrounding pelvic region. It causes burning sensations during urination and a frequent need to urinate. When caused by germs, cystitis is called a bacterial urinary tract infection. UTIs can be painful and annoying. A UTI such as cystitis can become a serious health problem if the infection spreads to your kidneys. Although interstitial cystitis is chronic, for most people it isn't progressive, which means that however mild or severe your symptoms, they won't usually get worse over time. This is an annoying and irritating condition which most commonly affects women, but can affect all age groups. Over two million women in the UK suffer from cystitis every year.

Cystitis is also called "frigidity." The usual treatment for cystitis is antibiotics. Cystitis usually begins when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra, the tube through which urine exits your body. Sometimes cystitis and urethritis are referred to collectively as a lower urinary tract infection , or UTI. Pain may change in intensity as the bladder fills with urine or as it empties. The condition frequently affects active women ages 20 to 50 but may also occur in those who are not active or in young girls. Women's symptoms often get worse during menstruation. A stiff bladder can't expand as urine fills it. In some cases, the walls of the bladder may bleed slightly. A few people get sores in the bladder lining. You can take a number of steps to help prevent cystitis and other UTIs. A typical attack of cystitis can be painful, but usually clears up after a few days without causing long-term problems. Cystitis is more common in pregnant women, active women and women after the menopause, but it can occur at any age.

Causes of Cystitis

The comman causes of Cystitis include the following:

  • The main cause of cystitis (and other urinary tract infections) is bacteria known as coliform bacteria, which are a common occupant of the bowel.
  • Certain medications.
  • Urinary tuberculosis infection.
  • Trauma as in "Honeymoon Cystitis" following unaccustomed and rather prolonged or vigorous activity.
  • Certain autoimmune disorders.
  • Infection from intestinal bacteria is by far the most frequent cause of cystitis, especially among women, who have a very short urethra (the tube through which the urine passes from the bladder to the outside).
  • Bladder stones ( type of Urinary stones ).
  • Other possible causes may be an increase of histamine-producing cells in the bladder wall or an autoimmune response (when antibodies are made that act against a part of the body).

Symptoms of Cystitis

Some sign and symptoms related to Cystitis are as follows:

  • Burning sensations or pain during urination.
  • Passing cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
  • Children under five years of age often have less concrete symptoms, such as weakness, irritability, reduced appetite and vomiting.
  • Pressure in the lower pelvis.
  • Frequent or urgent need to urinate.
  • Urgency or the need to pass water quickly when you sense the need to pass water.
  • Blood in the urine (This is a common feature and need not cause undue alarm.)
  • Low-grade fever.
  • Needing to urinate frequently and urgently, but only passing small amounts.
  • Dark, cloudy or smelly urine.
  • Pain or tenderness in your lower back or lower abdomen.

Treatment of Cystitis

Here is list of the methods for treating Cystitis:

  • Antibiotics are the first line of treatment for community-acquired bladder infections.
  • The medications most commonly recommended for simple UTIs include amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrodantin), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra) and trimethoprim (Proloprim, Trimpex).
  • You can try using bicarbonate of soda, 5ml (1 tea spoon) in half a glass of water, two or three times a day, or one of the over the counter cystitis remedies.
  • Use of erotic materials, such as vibrators, books, magazines and videos.
  • Use of lubricants to moisten the genital area.
  • bladder distension- a procedure aimed at increasing bladder capacity and interfering with pain signals that are being transmitted by the nerve cells in the bladder.
  • Surgery, considered a treatment of last resort. Surgery does not necessarily improve symptoms.