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Mucocutaneous Candidiasis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

 

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Mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare condition occurring in childhood in which candida infection is persistent and widespread. It is a heterogeneous disorder of the immune system. The patients with mucocutaneous candidiasis have an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders including endocrine disorders, diabetes, hemolytic anemia, autoimmune hair loss or loss of skin pigment. Mucocutaneous candidiasis may be characterized by persistent candida infections of the mucous membranes, scalp, skin and nails. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Candida is a fungus of the yeast category. Rarely, mucocutaneous candidiasis develops in adult life. This is often as a result of a thymoma and is associated with internal diseases such as myasthenia gravis, myositis, aplastic anaemia, neutropaenia and hypogammaglobulinaemia. The underlying defect is not as yet treatable.

Mucocutaneous candidiasis is also known as Candida related complex. It affects males and females equally. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis occur in childhood, there are a number of cases that first appear in adulthood, sometimes as late as 50 years of age. These chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis infections seldom produce systemic symptoms, but in late stages may be associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Symptoms may also be included hoarseness, dysphagia, and hemoptysis. There was poor correlation between oral lesions and laryngeal involvement. Treatment depends on antifungal agents orally for repeated or prolonged courses often in higher doses than is normally necessary for candida infections. Most patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis are treated with chronic that are specific for fungal infections.

Causes of Mucocutaneous candidiasis

Mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare condition caused by fungus. In mucocutaneous candidiasis, the body is less able to fight fungal infections, including yeast infections. These disorders may be confined to the cutaneous surface, with little propensity for systemic involvement. Rarely, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis develops in adult life. This is often as a result of a thymoma and is associated with internal diseases such as myasthenia gravis, myositis, aplastic anaemia, neutropaenia and hypogammaglobulinaemia.

Common causes and risk factors of Mucocutaneous candidiasis:

  • Immune dysregulation
  • Inheritance.
  • The fungal infection.
  • AIDS.
  • Diets high in sugars.
  • Multiple pregnancies.

Signs and Symptoms of Mucocutaneous candidiasis

Most cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis occur in childhood. These chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis infections seldom produce systemic symptoms, but in late stages may be associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Symptoms may also be included hoarseness, dysphagia, and hemoptysis. There was poor correlation between oral lesions and laryngeal involvement.

Sign and symptoms may include the following :

  • Red rashes may be seen often in the area.
  • Endocrine disorders.
  • Infection of cornea and eyelids.
  • Blisters.
  • Yeast infection in the mouth.
  • A lot of lumps, may be seen in the affected area of the skin.
  • Autoimmune hair loss (alopecia).

Treatment for Mucocutaneous candidiasis

Most patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis are treated with chronic that are specific for fungal infections. Treatment aims to control infection but is not always successful. Miconazole and nystatin are sometimes useful but ultimately fail to control this infection. A course of one or two weeks therapy is given to start with. If the Candida infection recurs quickly. Usually, the infections may be treated with an antifungal drug- nystatin or clotrimazole -applied to the skin. The primary contributing factor is the use of oral antibiotics. Patients should be evaluated periodically for endocrine disorders and those endocrine disorders should be treated as necessary.

Treatment may include:

  • Fluconazole as amphotericin B is an effective for treating mucocutaneous candidiasis.
  • Rest, limiting your sugar intake, and drink plenty of fluids.
  • The oral anti-fungal antibiotics such as fluconazole and itraconazole are found very effective in the treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis.
  • The gene replacement therapy is also very suitable for the treatment.
  • Topical creams or preparations can be helpful if the rash is mild. If there is pain or itching, topical creams such as corticosteroid or antihistamine creams can help.