Typhoid Fever disease is caused by a bacteria called Salmonella typhi. It is a common diseasein the
sub continent and affects all age groups. The poor hygiene conditions, open
sanitation habits, flies, sale of exposed food, and illiteracy is responsible for this disease.The
incubation period is 3 to 60 days. The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they're only partially effective and are usually reserved for people who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is endemic. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 12.5 million persons each year. Inflammation of the small and large intestine follows. In severe infections, which can be life threatening, sores may develop in the small intestine.
Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi . Since ancient times, these bacteria have thrived during wartime and during the breakdown of basic sanitation. It can be life-threatening, but antibiotics are an effective treatment. Today, typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries, although it remains a serious health threat in the developing world. The bacteria is deposited in water or food by a human carrier, and is then spread to other people in the area. It is recognized by the sudden onset of sustained fever, severe headache, nausea and severe loss of appetite. It is sometimes accompanied by hoarse cough and constipation or diarrhoea. When treated with antibiotics, most people feel better within a few days, although a small percentage - especially older adults and those with chronic diseases - may die of complications. The bacteria then multiply in the blood stream of the infected person and are absorbed into the digestive tract and eliminated with the waste.
In the year 1906, 3,000 New York state residents contracted typhoid fever, a contagious and life-threatening bacterial illness. Classic typhoid fever is a serious disease. This improvement is the result of improved environmental sanitation. Mexico and South America are the most common areas for U.S. citizens to contract typhoid fever. The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Paratyphoid fever shows similar symptoms, but tends to be milder and the case-fatality rate is much lower.
Causes of Typhoid Fever
The common Causes of Typhoid Fever :
- Ingestion of contaminated food or water
- Contact with an acute case of typhoid fever
- Water is contaminated where there is inadequate sewerage systems and poor sanitation.
- Salmonella may directly infect the gallbladder through the hepatic duct or spread to other areas of the body through the bloodstream.
- Involvement of a specialist in infectious disease is strongly encouraged. In addition, noninfectious cases of febrile illness, such as lymphoma, also should be considered.
- Contact with a chronic asymptomatic carrier
- People catch typhoid fever by eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person carrying the bacteria.
- Salmonella enteriditis and Salmonella typhimurium are other salmonella bacteria that are unfortunately quite familiar within the UK and cause food poisoning and diarrhoea.
Symptoms of Typhoid Fever
Some common Symptoms of Typhoid Fever :
- Constipation , then diarrhea
- Bloody stools
- Stomach pain
- Slow heart rate (bradycardia)
- A sore throat.
- Abdominal pain.
- General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise)
Treatment of Typhoid Fever
Here is the list of the methods for treating Typhoid Fever :
- Appropriate antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing rates of antibiotic resistance throughout the world, so the choice of antibiotics should be a careful one.
- Wash your hands carefully with soap and water after using the bathroom
- Chloramphenicol was the initial drug of choice (DOC) but is not commonly used because of widespread resistance, high relapse rates, and risk of bone marrow toxicity.
- Have your doctor collect follow-up stool samples to ensure that no S. typhi bacteria remain in your body.
- The bacterium is controlled with antibiotics , and in very rare cases steroid medicines are also included in the treatment.
- Nearly all ophthalmic complications are managed medically, including infection, uveitis, serous retinal detachment, and other presumed sequelae of inflammation.
- Prompt surgical intervention for severe intestinal bleeding or bowel perforation has been shown to reduce mortality substantially.