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Rubella

 

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Rubella is a three-day mild measles. However, if a pregnant woman gets it, it may lead to seriousfetal infection and malformation. It is caused by the rubella virus. Most rubella infections today appear in young, non-immunized adults rather than children. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently susceptible to rubella, which could pose a danger to any children they might have someday.

Rubella can occur in susceptible persons by natural influx of the virus via the nasopharynx. Congenita lrubella results from the transplacental transmission of the virus to the fetus from the infected mother and may be associated with growth retardation, infiltration of the liver and spleen, and pneumonia.

Rubella is not as contagious as measles. However, once a person has rubella, she/he has immunityfor life. Even though it is a mild childhood illness CRS causes many birth defects. Deafness is the most common, but CRS can also cause defects in the eyes, heart, and brain. Rubella outbreaks once were common in the United States. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently susceptible to rubella, which could pose a danger to any children they might have someday.

Rubella is a contagious viral infection with mild symptoms associated with a rash. Rubella -commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles - is an infection that primarily affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is often mild and an attack can pass unnoticed. However, this can make the virus difficult to diagnose. The virus usually enters the body through the nose or throat . Rubella and measles are both contagious viral infections best known by the distinctive red rash that may appear on the skin of those who contract either illness. However, rubella is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles, which is why rubella is also called three-day measles. Kids ages 5 to 9 were primarily affected, and many cases of congenital rubella occurred as well. If the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the baby will have congenital rubella syndrome .

Rubella is usually a mild viral illness involving the skin, the lymph nodes, and, less commonly, the joints.When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus. It is caused by the rubella virus ( not the same virus that causes measles), which is usually transmitted by droplets from the nose or throat that others breathe in.There is one important exception: If a pregnant woman contracts rubella, especially during her first trimester, the virus can cause death or serious birth defects in the developing fetus. It is characterized by a rash, swollen glands and, especially in adults, joint pain. The rash usually lasts about three days and may be accompanied by a low fever. The name German measles has nothing to do with Germany . It comes from the Latin germanus , meaning "similar", since rubella and measles share many symptoms.

Causes of Rubella

The common Causes of Rubella :

  • Rubella is an RNA virus classified as a Rubivirus in the Togaviridae family.
  • The incubation period, from exposure to the appearance of the rash, is usually 14 to 21 days.
  • Risk factors for congenital rubella include lack of the recommended rubella immunization and contact with a person who has rubella (also called the 3-day measles or German measles). Pregnant women who are not vaccinated and who have not had rubella risk infection to themselves and damage to their unborn baby.
  • Risk factors for congenital rubella include lack of the recommended rubella immunization and contact with a person who has rubella (also called the 3-day measles or German measles).
  • Pregnant women who are not vaccinated and who have not had rubella risk infection to themselves and damage to their unborn baby.

Symptoms of Rubella

Some common Symptoms of Rubella :

  • History of mother having rubella while pregnant (particularly in the first trimester)
  • Deafness
  • Skin rash at birth ( purpura , petechiae)
  • Low birth weight
  • Headache
  • Small head size ( microcephaly )
  • Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears
  • Inflammation of the eyes (bloodshot eyes)
  • Irritability
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Aching joints, especially in young women
  • Runny nose

Treatment of Rubella

Here is the list of the methods for treating Rubella :

  • Very little treatment is necessary, but it consists essentially of symptom relief eg for pain and fever
  • Rest and oral fluids are appropriate.
  • There is no specific treatment for congenital rubella.
  • The treatment of congenital rubella syndrome is for the defects that may be present.
  • Pregnant mothers should avoid any contact with suspected infected cases of rubella.
  • Care involves appropriate treatment of affected systems in consultation with your health care providers
  • Individuals may remain contagious for 7 days after the onset of the rash, and they should be appropriately isolated from work, school, or other public settings.
  • Prophylaxis with immunoglobulin (antibodies) may be considered in pregnant women who are exposed and termination is unacceptable.