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Rabies

 

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Rabies is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system that affects all mammals. It is transmitted by infected secretions usually saliva. Most exposures to rabies are through the bite of an infected animal. Treatment consists of treatment to the wound plus a series of rabies shots, which prevent symptoms and death resulting from rabies infection. If you think you've been exposed to an animal with rabies, call your doctor as soon as possible Fortunately, rabies can be prevented with a vaccine and, if you have been bitten, there is every chance that you can be treated before the symptoms develop. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals, groundhogs , weasels and other wild carnivores Any animal bites - even those that don't involve rabies - can lead to infections and other medical problems. As a precaution, you may want to call your child's doctor any time your child has been bitten.

Rabies is a frequently fatal, acute viral infection. Rabies is a serious viral disease that affects the central nervous system. It is transmitted to people from infected mammals. Treatment of an infected person as critical. In non-vaccinated humans, rabies is almost invariably fatal after neurological symptoms have developed, but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. Very rarely, rabies has been transmitted by exposures other than bites that introduce the virus into open wounds or mucous membranes. A twitching around the animal bite, a trademark symptom of rabies, may appear in addition to a fever above 105 degrees Fahrenheit (40.5 degrees Celsius), agitation, and hallucinations. People are most often infected by the bite of a dog, bat or monkey. In Europe the virus is mainly carried by the fox. None of the 22 imported cases received post-exposure prophylactic treatment for rabies either in the country of origin or in the UK. In 2003 it was recognised that UK bats may carry a rabies-like virus, European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBL2).

Although rabies infections in people are rare, they can cause serious health problems. But if you recognize the warning signs of a rabies infection early and get medical help, your child can make a full recovery. The virus is transmitted in saliva from the bite of an infected animal. Rabies primarily attacks the nervous system and causes an encephalitis After a bite by a rabid animal, a child may develop a fever, headache, and general malaise. If someone gets bitten by an animal that has rabies, quick treatment can prevent the illness. Most rabies cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year occur in wild animals, including raccoons, skunks and foxes. Infected bats have transmitted most of the recent rabies cases in people in the United States.

Causes of Rabies

The common Causes of Rabies :

  • Rabies is caused by the rabies virus, of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae.
  • The bullet-shaped ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus has 3 major components: surface glycoprotein (G protein), outer envelope protein (M or matrix protein), and nucleocapsid.
  • Although dog bites are a common cause of rabies in developing countries, there have been no reports of rabies caused by dog bites in the U.S. for a number of years due to widespread animal vaccination.
  • Rabies is transmitted by contact with the rabies virus, although the method of virus transmission may be unclear in cases with no history of contact with the source animal.
  • The virus travels from the wound to the brain, where it causes swelling, called inflammation.
  • Rabies virus is transmitted by bite or saliva of an infected mammal.
  • Any mammal can carry and potentially transmit the virus, but carnivorous species and bats are usually the agents of transmission.

Symptoms of Rabies

Some common Symptoms of Rabies :

  • Restlessness
  • Anxiety
  • Excitability
  • Confusion
  • Muscle spasms
  • Slight or partial paralysis
  • Excessive drooling
  • Agitation
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Excessive salivation (hypersalivation)
  • Restlessness, excitability, aggression, or sudden mood changes

Treatment of Rabies

Here is the list of the methods for treating Rabies :

  • Equine rabies immunoglobulin may be available in other countries minimal adverse effects occur if it is in the purified form, but if unpurified, it may cause serum sickness and anaphylaxis.
  • A series of vaccinations after exposure can prevent the disease once symptoms appear, there is no treatment.
  • Treatment is both by giving specific immunoglobulin (passive immunisation) and by administration of a normal vaccination (active immunisation).
  • If you live in the United States and receive treatment for rabies after an animal bite, treatment - called post-exposure prophylaxis - consists of one dose of rabies immune globulin and five doses of rabies vaccine over a 28-day period.
  • Rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA) - Made and distributed in Michigan for IM use only
  • Mild local and systemic adverse reactions to these vaccines and immunoglobulin may occur but are usually treatable with supportive care, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory medications local pain, erythema, headache, nausea, and abdominal pain may occur.
  • Exposures involving small rodents and lagomorphs (eg, squirrels, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, chipmunks, rats, mice, rabbits, hares) do not require treatment.