Rheumatoid arthritis, often called RA, is a chronic (long-standing) disease that damages and eventually destroys the joints of the body. Arthritis can be short-term lasting for just a few weeks or months, then going away forever or it can be chronic and last for months or years. In rare cases, it can last a lifetime. Inflammation causes redness, swelling, warmth, and soreness in the joints, although many children with JRA do not complain of joint pain. The damage is caused by inflammation, a normal response of the body's immune system. Arthritis means “joint inflammation.” JRA is the most common form of arthritis in children. It may be a mild condition that causes few problems over time, but it can be much more persistent and cause joint and tissue damage in other children. Any joint can be affected and inflammation may limit the mobility of affected joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is arthritis that causes joint inflammation and stiffness. Inflammation often affects other organs and systems of the body as well. Chronic inflammation of synovium is characterized by B lymphocyte infiltration and expansion.
Three major types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritisfirst is Polyarticular arthritis. It is affects more girls than boys. Symptoms include swelling or pain in 5 or more joints. Second is Pauciarticular JRA It is affects four or fewer joints. This inflammation, called iridocyclitis or iritis or uveitis , can be detected early by an ophthalmologist and last is Systemic JRA. It is affects the whole body. Symptoms include high fevers that often increase in the evenings and then may suddenly drop to normal. During the onset of fever, the child may feel very ill, appear pale, or develop a rash. The rash may suddenly disappear and then quickly appear again. The spleen and lymph nodes may also become enlarged. Eventually many of the body's joints are affected by swelling, pain, and stiffness
Causes of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Common causes of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Autoimmune disorder.
- Immune system.
- Genetic factors.(deoxyribonucleic acid).
Symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Common Symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
- High fevers.
- Rashes that suddenly appear.
- Joint stiffness that is worse after rest
- Swelling of the joints.
- Eye inflammation.
Treatment of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Common Treatment of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin), and naproxen or naproxen sodium (Naprosyn, Aleve) are examples of NSAIDs.
- Doctors use these medications when NSAIDs alone fail to relieve symptoms of joint pain and swelling.
- Aspirin is no longer a first choice in JRA because of its side effects. The side effects can be (but rarely are) serious, especially those in the digestive tract and liver.
- Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). these medications ( Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac) relieve symptoms of joint pain and swelling. They may be taken in combination with NSAIDs and are used to slow the progress of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Commonly used DMARDs for children include methotrexate (Rheumatrex) and sulfasalazine (Azulfidine).
- Such injections may also be effective in treating temporomandibular arthritis in children with polyarticular JRA. Usually, delay joint replacement (often of the hips, in patients with polyarticular JRA) until bone growth has completed, which is reflected by epiphyseal closure.