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Home :: Eye Disease

Dry Eyes - Dry Eyes Treatment, symptom, cause

 

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Dry eye produces discomfort and reduces vision when the tear film becomes chronically table or unavailable thereby leading to dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea. Sometimes, a person with a dry eye will have excess tears running down the cheeks, which may seem confusing. People who have Chronic Dry Eyes are diagnosed by a doctor and usually have a decrease in the amount of tear production. Many people also find their eyes become irritated when reading or working on a computer.  Stopping periodically to rest and blink keeps the eyes more comfortable In addition, because these emergency tears tend to arrive too late, the eye needs to regenerate and treatment is necessary.

Dry eyes are caused by a lack of tears. A sad movie or a wedding can make your tears flow. But tears aren't produced only on those occasions. It is usually caused by a problem with the quality of the tear film that lubricates the eyes.  Tears are a combination of water, for moisture; oils, for lubrication; mucus, for even spreading; and antibodies and special proteins, for resistance to infection. People with dry eyes often feel discomfort in a variety of forms. Sometimes even if the eyes are dry they may feel as though they 'water'; this is due to poorly spreading tears. When your eyes become irritated by dust or are bothered by wind, smoke or fumes, extra tears form to help wash away the foreign material. In response, the eye is flooded with tears to try to compensate for the underlying dryness. However, these tears are mostly water and do not have the lubricating qualities or the rich composition of normal tears. Many other factors, such as hot, dry or windy climates, high altitudes, air-conditioning and cigarette smoke also cause dry eyes. Certain medications, thyroid conditions, vitamin A deficiency, and diseases such as Parkinson's and Sjogren's can also cause dryness. Adults age 40 or older are most likely to experience dry eyes. Treatment of dry eyes is aimed at restoring a more normal tear film to minimize dryness and its consequences, including blurred vision and discomfort.

The eye depends on the flow of tears to provide constant moisture and lubrication to maintain vision and comfort. Dry eye syndrome is a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture in the eye. Healthy eyes are continuously covered by a tear film - a constant layer of fluid designed to remain stable between blinks. They not only wash away dust from the eyes, they also soothe the eyes, provide oxygen and nutrients to the cornea, as well as help prevent eye infections . The water layer is produced in the lacrimal gland , located under the upper eyelid. With each blink, the eyelids spread the tears over the eye.

Causes of Dry Eyes

The common Causes of Dry Eyes :

  • Side effects of using certain medications such as antihistamines and birth control pills.
  • An eye injury or other problem with your eyes or eyelids (like a drooping eyelid or bulging eyes ).
  • Diseases that affect the ability to make tears, such as Sjogren's syndrome , rheumatoid arthritis and collagen vascular diseases.
  • Smoking or second-hand smoke exposure.
  • A very dry environment - try using a humidifier.
  • Cold or allergy medicines.
  • often people are slow to realise there's a problem because the drainage of fluid from the eye can also slow with age.
  • Poor tear film formation as a result of problems with the tiny glands in the eye which make the ingredients for tears.

Symptoms of Dry Eyes

Some common Symptoms of Dry Eyes :

  • Itching .
  • Discomfort in the eyes.
  • Stringy mucus in or around your eyes.
  • Burning.
  • Itchiness.
  • Irritation.
  • Redness.
  • Sensitivity to light .
  • Difficulty wearing contact lenses.
  • Increased eye irritation from smoke or wind.

Treatment of Dry Eyes

Here is the list of the methods for treating Dry Eyes :

  • Other medications, including topical steroids, may also be beneficial in some cases.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications, such as steroids, antimetabolites and cyclosporine A, as well as tetracyclines and hormones, are used to treat more severe forms of dry eye surgical techniques used to preserve tears include punctal cautery, punctal plugs, and tarsorrhaphy
  • Excessive air movement dries out your eyes avoid having excessive air movement by decreasing the speed of ceiling fans and/or oscillating fans.
  • If you notice your eyes are dry mainly while you are reading or watching TV, taking frequent breaks to allow your eyes to rest and become moist and comfortable again is helpful.
  • Lubricating eye ointments are much thicker than eyedrops and gels because ointments are so thick, they last much longer than eyedrops and gels however, because of their thickness, ointments may blur your vision if used during the day.