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Thyrotoxicosis

 

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Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis condition demonstrates hyperactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive supply of thyroxine hormone. Another condition, called subclinical hyperthyroidism, may be diagnosed when you have low levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but normal levels of thyroid hormone. Hot nodules will take up more radioiodine than surrounding tissue, and cold nodules will take up less Hot nodules, which can cause hyperthyroidism, are almost always benign. Most cold nodules are also benign but 5-15 percent of cold nodules may be malignant.

Thyrotoxicosis can occur when people take too much thyroid replacement hormone or ingest food or medicines contaminated or adulterated with thyroid hormone. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' Disease, in which the immune system, for reasons that are not clearly understood, releases antibodies that attack or “bind” to thyroid cells. This is known as exogenous thyrotoxicosis and it is not a thyroid disorder. Differentiating between thyrotoxicosis caused by hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis not caused by hyperthyroidism is important because disease management and therapy differ for each form. The nodules often produce excess thyroid hormone after the patient is exposed to excess iodine in iodine contrast dyes and imaging tests. However, in patients with silent thyroiditis a palpable firm painless thyroid gland is present. Obviously, therapy for a toxic multinodular goiter in an elderly woman would differ from that for a young woman with the usually transient thyrotoxicosis associated with postpartum thyroiditis.

Thyrotoxicosis or hyperthyroidism is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine, or both. The patients complained of sleeplessness, nervousness, headache, fatique, excessive sweating and weight loss. Silent thyroiditis however, is not so easily distinguished from thyrotoxicosis factitia. Hyperthyroidism is a condition caused by high thyroid hormone levels. Toxic multinodular goiter usually develops in older people who may have had hypothyroidism. Deliberate intake of high doses of thyroid hormone leads to TSH suppression and shrinkage of the thyroid, so that no thyroid tissue is palpated. In these cases the thyroid gland itself is not overactive, but there is still too much thyroid hormone in the blood. Untreated, thyrotoxicosis can lead to serious medical complications such as heart rhythm disturbances and Osteoporosis, caused from the long-term effects of hormone overproduction.

Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

The common Causes of Thyrotoxicosis :

  • This hormone normally stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroxine, so antibodies bound on to these receptors cause production of thyroid hormone, and because it attaches to these receptors better than TSH would, more thyroxine than usual is produced.
  • Autoimmune disease; Graves disease, lymphocytic thyroiditis with hyperthyroidism (ie, silent thyroiditis), and postpartum thyrotoxicosis (PPT).
  • Neoplasm, toxic nodule, and toxic multinodular goiter (autonomously functioning nodules).

Symptoms of Thyrotoxicosis

Some common Symptoms of Thyrotoxicosis :

  • Weight loss in spite of increased appetite
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Fatigue
  • A fine tremor
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia
  • Frequent bowel movements

Treatment of Thyrotoxicosis

Here is the list of the methods for treating Thyrotoxicosis :

  • Your doctor is likely to prescribe medication known as a thiourea drug (carbimazole, methimazole or propylthiouracil) that will reduce the output of hormone from the thyroid.
  • Beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol) are used to treat some of the symptoms including rapid heart rate , sweating , and anxiety until the hyperthyroidism can be controlled.
  • Sometimes your doctor may prescribe another type of medication, a beta blocker, to overcome some of the worst symptoms of an over-active thyroid gland, while waiting for the specific treatment for the thyroid to take its effect.
  • Hyperthyroidism is usually treated with antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine (which destroys the thyroid and thus stops the excess production of hormones), or surgery to remove the thyroid.
  • Another treatment that is sometimes used is the injection of radioactive iodine ( a longer lasting isotope than is used for scanning) which is concentrated in the thyroid gland and results in damage to and destruction of some of the cells of the thyroid.