Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases in the developing and developed countries. Diabetes is a condition where insulin production from the pancreas gland is no longer sufficient or available for the metabolism of sugar and carbohydrates. This results in a rise of blood sugar levels well beyond the normal and thus diabetes (hyperglycaemia). It is a metabolic disease that requires medical diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle changes. Of the more than 20.8 million people with diabetes in the United States, about 5 percent to 10 percent have the type 1 form of the disease. Since the first therapeutic use of insulin (1921) diabetes has been a treatable but chronic condition , and the main risks to health are its characteristic long-term complications. In the OGTT test, a person's blood glucose level is measured after a fast and two hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. The risk of disabling complications from type 1 diabetes has also been reduced.
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when a person's body doesn't make enough insulin or can't use insulin properly. When you have diabetes, the sugar builds up in your blood instead of moving into the cells. These include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (it is the main cause for dialysis in developed world adults), retinal damage which can lead to blindness and is the most significant cause of adult blindness in the non-elderly in the developed world, nerve damage , erectile dysfunction (impotence) and gangrene with risk of amputation of toes, feet, and even legs.
Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Type 1 is generally due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells, while type 2 and gestational diabetes are due to insulin resistance by tissues. About one of every 400 to 600 children and adolescents in the United States has or will have type 1 diabetes. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, allows glucose to enter all the cells of your body and be used as energy. People with diabetes either do not produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or cannot use insulin properly (type 2 diabetes), or both. Living with type 1 diabetes can still be a challenge, but improvements in patient education, blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have simplified the daily routine of managing the disease. Over the years, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve problems, gum infections, and amputation.
Causes of Diabetes
The common Causes of Diabetes :
- The recent dramatic increase indicates that lifestyle factors (obesity and sedentary lifestyle) may be particularly important in triggering the genetic elements that cause this type of diabetes.
- Environmental factors, such as certain types of viral infections, may also contribute.
- Gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
- High blood triglyceride (fat) levels
- Medication (cortisone and some high blood pressure drugs)
- High alcohol intake
- Women having given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 lbs.
- But your hormonal system including but not limited to the insulin-producing pancreas continuously makes complex adjustments that keep your blood sugar levels within set limits.
- Eating sweets or the wrong kind of food does not cause diabetes however, it may cause obesity and this is associated with people developing Type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Some common Symptoms of Diabetes :
- weight loss
- Increased hunger
- Increased urination, especially at night
- Nausea and vomiting .
- In women, yeast infections or fungal infections under the breasts or in the groin
- Excessive thirst
- Increased urination
- Blurred vision
Treatment of Diabetes
- Eat a consistent, well-balanced diet that is high in fiber , low in saturated fat, and low in concentrated sweets.
- It will also help to keep your blood sugar at a relatively even level and avoid excessively low or high blood sugar levels, which can be dangerous and even life threatening.
- A well-balanced diet, more exercise, proper stress management, oral anti-diabetic drugs and/or daily insulin injections
- Healthy lifestyle changes: Regular exercise; heart-healthy diet; quitting smoking.
- This log should also include your insulin or oral medication doses and times, when and what you ate, when and for how long you exercised, and any significant events of the day such as high or low blood sugar levels and how you treated the problem.
- Treat all conditions that place the patients at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are the major killers of people with type 2 diabetes.
- Medicare now pays for diabetic testing supplies, as do many private insurers and Medicaid