Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication. It is effective against a Fescennine spectrum of fungi including is Dermatophytes (tinea infections) and yeasts such as candida and malassezia. Ketoconazole is used to treat eumycetoma. Ketoconazole is very lipophilic, that leads to deposition in fatty tissues. The less toxic and more effective triazole compounds fluconazole and itraconazole have amply replaced ketoconazole for internal use. Ketoconazole is best absorbed at highly acidic levels, so antacids or other causes of decreased stomach acid levels will lower the drug's potency when taken orally.
Ketoconazole is in a class of antifungals called imidazoles. It performs by slowing the growth of fungi that cause infection. Ketoconazole is structurally similar to imidazole, and intervenes with the fungal synthesis of ergosterol, a constituent of cell membranes, as well as certain enzymes. Ketoconazole also meddles with the adrenal gland's production of cortisone and can thus be used in the treatment of Cushing's Disease. At higher doses of Ketoconazole at result is liver disease. Few individuals will show a lightening of the hair coat while taking ketoconazole. It is precisely for fungi, as mammalian cell membranes contain no ergosterol. Ketoconazole is a synthetic broad-spectrum antifungal agent present in scored white tablets, each containing 200 mg ketoconazole base for oral administration. Ketoconazole 2% Shampoo is a red-orange liquid for topical application.
Ketoconazole is containing the broad-spectrum synthetic antifungal agent ketoconazole in a concentration of 2% in an aqueous suspension. Ketoconazole cream and prescription shampoo are also rarely used to remove dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (condition that causes flaking of the skin). Ketoconazole cream is occassionally used to treat tinea manuum (fungal infection of the skin on the hands).
Ketoconazole cream is also occassionally used with other medications to treat skin conditions that are often worsened by fungal infection such as diaper rash, eczema (skin irritation caused by allergies), impetigo (blisters caused by a bacterial infection), and psoriasis (a lifelong skin condition). Ketoconazole most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These may be reduced by giving ketoconazole with food or by dividing the dose into several smaller doses. Ketoconazole intervenes with testicular secretion of testosterone and may produce a feminizing effect in males.
- The dose of Ketoconazole will be seperate for seperate patients.
- Adults and teenagers - ketoconazole in adults is 200 - 400 mg daily, taken for two to eight weeks (a single dose may be effective for pityriasis versicolor ).
- Children - The dose in children is usually 50 mg per day for those weighing less than 20 kg and 100mg daily for those 20-40 kg.
Side Effects of Ketoconazole
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Allergic skin rash including urticaria.
- Hair loss.
Warnings and precautions before taking Ketoconazole
Do not take a double dose of this medication. Ketoconazole should be used during pregnancy only if the eventual benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Ketoconazole is notdescried in plasma after chronic shampooing. Since ketoconazole is probably excreted in the milk, mothers who are under treatment should not breast feed. Ketoconazole should be avoided by patients with liver dysfunction.