Acute Peritonitis is a localised or generalised inflammatory process of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is
a membrane that lines the abdominal wall. Acute Peritonitis is a localised or generalised inflammatory process of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is a membrane that lines the abdominal wall. All underwent emergency laparotomy, at which dilatation and inflammation of the ascending colon were found. About 20 to 30% of patients with Ascites will develop SBP. In other cases, peritonitis is caused by some other condition, and this is known as secondary bacterial peritonitis.
Due to various reasons like intestinal obstruction or rupture of the intestine, the peritoneum
gets contaminated by stale decomposed intestinal material which is infected. Peritonitis is defined as inflammation of the peritoneum (the serous membrane which lines part of the abdominal cavity and some of the viscera it contains). Only one of the patients had profuse diarrhea, and two patients had no diarrhea prior to laparotomy. It may be localised or generalised, generally has an acute course, and may depend on either infection (often due to rupture of a hollow viscus ) or on a non-infectious process. Peritonitis generally represents a surgical emergency. By combining thousands of connections between signs, symptoms, risk factors, conditions and treatments, Antibiotic-associated colitis must be considered in any patient who develops peritoneal signs while or after receiving antibiotics. Over a two-year period, the "acute abdomen" presentation accounted for 5.2% of all patients with C difficile colitis at our institutions.
Causes of Acute Peritonitis
The common Causes of Acute Peritonitis :
- The risk of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) is higher in patients who have liver disease and who have a low amount of protein in their Ascites fluid.
- Penetrating knife and gunshot injuries.
- Another cause of peritonitis is Tuberculosis infection of the abdominal cavity.
- Infection following abdominal surgery.
- A disease called familial Mediterranean fever also can cause peritonitis.
- Systemic infections (such as tuberculosis ) may rarely have a peritoneal localisation.
- Strangulated hernias.
- Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a peculiar form of peritonitis occurring in the absence of an obvious source of contamination. '
Symptoms of Acute Peritonitis
Some are common Symptoms of Acute Peritonitis :
- Most patients with peritonitis will have abdominal pain and a fever.
- Some patients will have nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss.
- Examination by a doctor usually reveals tenderness of the abdomen, and fever.
- Inability to pass feces or gas
- Patients with tuberculous peritonitis have low-grade fever, loss of appetite, and weight loss.
- Point tenderness
- Abdominal pain
- Many patients with Ascites also have liver problems.When these patients develop peritonitis, they often experience deterioration in mental status because of the build-up of toxic substances in their blood.
Treatment of Acute Peritonitis
Here is the list of the methods for treating Acute Appendicitis :
- Treatment depends on the cause of the peritonitis.
- General supportive measures such as vigorous intravenous rehydration and correction of electrolye disturbances .
- In cases associated with peritoneal dialysis, antibiotics may be infused through the dialysis catheter, but if the infection is severe, the catheter itself must often be removed.
- The empiric choice of broad-spectrum antibiotics often consist of multiple drugs, and should be targeted against the most likely agents, depending on the cause of peritonitis (see above); once one or more agents are actually isolated, therapy will of course be targetted on them.
- Treatment for SBP is with antibiotics.Usually the person is treated with an antibiotic such as cefotaxime.If needed, another antibiotic called ampicillin can be also be used. Antibiotics are usually continued for 1-2 weeks.
- Patients with familial Mediterranean fever sometimes can be treated with a medicine called Colchicine (which is often used in patients with gout) to help reduce the frequency and severity of symptoms. However, no specific cure for this condition is currently available.
- Surgery ( laparotomy ) is needed to perform a full exploration and lavage of the peritoneum , as well as to correct any gross anatomical damage which may have caused peritonitis. The exception is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis , which does not benefit from surgery .