Blood pressure above 140/90 constitutes hypertension. Increase in diastolic pressure is more important in the definition of hypertension. As part of our increasing engagement in improving blood pressure measurement we are now undertaking active validation of new blood pressure devices for the measurement of blood pressure. Intracardiac left-to-right shunts (such as a ventricular or atrial septal defect, a hole in the wall between the two ventricles or atria) can cause too much blood flow through the lungs. Hypertension occurs when blood is forced through the arteries at an increased pressure.In patients with diabetes mellitus or kidney disease studies have shown that blood pressure over 130/80 mmHg should be considered a risk factor and warrants treatment. Accordingly, the diagnosis of high blood pressure in an individual is important so that efforts can be made to normalize the blood pressure and, thereby, prevent the complications.Whereas it was previously thought that diastolic blood pressure elevations were a more important risk factor than systolic elevations, it is now known that for individuals older than 50 years of age systolic hypertension represents a greater risk.
Hypertension , commonly referred to as "high blood pressure", is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated.The arteries are the vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all of the tissues and organs of the body.High blood pressure does not mean excessive emotional tension, although emotional tension and stress can temporarily increase the blood pressure. Because the risk to an individual patient may correlate with the severity of hypertension, a classification system is essential for making decisions about aggressiveness of treatment or therapeutic interventions. Generally, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk. Untreated hypertension affects all organ systems and can shorten one's life expectancy by 10 to 20 years.An elevation of the systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure increases the risk of developing heart (cardiac) disease, kidney (renal) disease, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis), eye damage, and stroke (brain damage).This can cause an artery to rupture or the heart to fail under the strain - in the worst case stopping altogether.If the pressure is high enough, eventually the heart can't keep up, and less blood can circulate through the lungs to pick up oxygen.
Blood pressure is a continuously distributed variable and the risk of associated cardiovascular disease likewise rises continuously. Therefore, determinants of blood pressure include factors that affect both cardiac output and arteriolar vascular physiology. The diastolic pressure, which is the bottom number, represents the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes after the contraction. Blood is pumped from the heart through the arteries out to our muscles and organs. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, impaired vision, and kidney disease. The British Hypertension Society has a track record of producing internationally renowned guidelines for the management of hypertension which are widely adopted in primary care in the UK and elsewhere. Furthermore, changes in vascular wall thickness affect the amplification of peripheral vascular resistance in hypertensive patients and result in reflection of waves back to the aorta, increasing systolic blood pressure.
Causes of Hypertention
The common Causes of Hypertention :
- Renal parenchymal disease
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
- There does not appear to be a direct relationship between caffeine and chronic hypertension, even though caffeine intake can cause an acute (rapid but brief) increase in blood pressure.
- chronic alcohol abuse
- Dangerous expansion of the main artery either in the chest or the abdomen, which becomes weakened and may rupture.
- Lack of Exercise
- Secondary causes include certain types of kidney disease, abnormal functioning of certain glands (adrenal glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands), chronic intake of certain substances and medications (e.g., alcohol, steroids), and the presence of a rare tumor (e.g., pheochromocytoma, which secretes adrenaline-like substances).
Symptoms of Hypertention
Some are common Symptoms of Hypertention :
- Vision changes
- Cyanosis, a condition in which the baby's skin has a bluish tint, even while they are receiving extra oxygen to breathe
- Swelling in the ankles or legs (edema)
- Bluish lips and skin (cyanosis)
- Angina-like chest pain (crushing chest pain )
- Ear noise or buzzing
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Respiratory distress, including signs such as flaring nostrils and grunting
Treatment of Hypertention
Here is the list of the methods for treating Hypertention :
- Medications may include diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or alpha blockers.
- Medications such as hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide, or nitroprusside may be required if the blood pressure is very high.
- Increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart, while reducing its workload.
- 100 percent supplemental oxygen may be given to your baby through a mask or plastic hood.
- Research has shown that this gas is effective in treating PPHN because it relaxes contracted lung blood vessels and improves blood flow to the lungs.
- For the compelling indications, other antihypertensive drugs (eg, diuretics, ACE inhibitor, ARB, beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker) may be considered as needed.
- Maintain weight at 15 percent or less of desirable weight
- Stop smoking and reduce intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol for overall cardiovascular health.
- This type of ventilation may improve the oxygen level in the blood if other types of ventilation are not effective.