Cardiology is the division of medicine treating with sickness of the heart and blood vessels. The field is usually alienated in the branches of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart infection and electrophysiology. The word cardiology was consequent from a Greek work “kardia,” meaning “heart” or the “inner self.” Physicians concentrate in this field of medicine are known as cardiologists. Cardiologists should not be bemused with cardiac surgeons who are surgeons who perform cardiac surgery - operative dealings on the heart and great vessels. There are mostly four sub areas in cardiology - interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, nuclear cardiology, and echocardiography.
Interventional cardiology occupies a number of methods like angioplasty, maze process, and radio frequent ablation. Electrophysiology is the revise of the electrical system of the heart. Nuclear cardiology is associated with the pumping performance of the heart. In echocardiography, transesophageal echo methods and echocardiogram are evaluated. Lots of urbane medical devices are used in cardiology. To defend the normal electrical rhythm of the heart, devices like pacemaker and defibrillator are used. Cardiac Arrest is distinct as the failure and stopping of the pumping act of the heart.
Acute Myocardial Infarction - Acute Myocardial Infarction is defined as the sudden blockage of one or more coronary arteries as a result of coronary
atheroslerosis, thrombus, embolus. Acute Myocardial Infarction is one of the commonest heart ailments in middle aged
Mitral Stenosis - In normal adults the Mitral valve between the left atrium and left ventricle, has an orifice of 4-6 sq.cm. When the orifice is less than half of the normal, blood flow between left atrium and left ventricle is significantly obstructed.
Aortic Stenosis - Aortic Stenosis lesion occurs in 25% of all patients with chronic valvular heart disease of rheumatic
origin.The primary abnormality is obstruction to the left ventricle output. There is reduced
cardiac output and a gradually dilating left ventricle and hypertrophy of the heart muscle.
Hypotension - Hypotension and shock are not synonymous. While shock is always associated with low BP, a previously hypertensive patient may be in shock despite BP being within normal limits. Hypotension may occur in the absence of shock.
Hypertension - Blood pressure above 140/90 constitutes hypertension. Increase in diastolic pressure is more important in the definition of hypertension.
Tachycardia - The normal pulse rate varies from 60-72 per minute. This rate may rise with specific conditions like in Tachycardia.
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia - May be present in normal individuals, WPW syndrome (pre-excitation), digitalis toxicity, rheumatic heart disease, and coronary artery disease.
Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome -
Heart Block - Heart Block is a condition in which there is failure in the conduction of electrical impulses from the naturalpacemaker (Sinoatrial node) through the heart, which can lead to a slowing of the pumpaction.
Ischaemic Heart Disease - Ischaemic Heart Disease is defined as an episodic disease resulting in a temporary stoppage of blood in the coronary arteries and ischaemia of the heart muscle.
Rheumatic Fever - Rheumatic Fever is an inflammatory disease, which occurs as a delayed sequel to pharyngeal infection with streptococcal bacteria. It involves principally the heart, joints, central nervous system and skin.
Infective Endocarditis - Infective Endocarditis is a microbial infection (if damaged heart valves of rheumatic origin and of the endocardium of the heart (the inner lining).
Heart Failure - Heart Failure is defined as a state of abnormality of the cardiac function where the rate of pumping blood by the heart does not commensurate with the requirement of peripheral tissues.
Cardiac Arrest - Cardiac Arrest is defined as the failure and stopping of the pumping action of the heart.