Raynauds Disease is a disorder of the circulation, in which there is periodic interruption of blood supply to the
periphery due to spasm of the smail arteries of the fingers, toes and nose.
Raynaud's attacks are usually triggered by contact with the cold. Stress and anxiety can also lead to a Raynaud's attack. Raynaud's disease (RAY-noz) is a condition that affects blood flow to the extremities which include the fingers , toes , nose and ears when exposed to temperature changes or stress. It's a disorder of the blood vessels that supply blood to your skin.
The condition can usually be diagnosed at an early age, but some people with the illness do not show any symptoms until late teenage years. Many people with Raynaud's find that it can get progressively worse over time, as damage is done to the blood supply to the affected areas. During a Raynaud's attack, these arteries narrow, limiting blood circulation to affected areas. Although estimates vary, most studies show that Raynaud's phenomenon affects about 3 percent of the general population. For most, the symptoms are mild and not associated with any blood vessel or tissue damage. During these attacks, there is a brief lack of blood flow to the affected body part(s), and the skin can temporarily become white then bluish. Initially, the digits involved turn white because of diminished blood supply, then turn blue because of prolonged lack of oxygen and finally, the blood vessels reopen, causing a local "flushing" phenomenon, which turns the digits red.
A condition resulting in skin discoloration of the fingers and/or toes when a person is exposed to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or to emotional events You can have Raynaud's without any underlying disease associated with it, in which case it's called Raynaud's disease or primary Raynaud's. This results in several skin color changes which are often accompanied by a throbbing or burning sensation, cold, and numbness. The inset images show cross-sections of a normal artery.
Raynaud's disease can trigger other problems, and left untreated could become more problematic. To help sort out the problem, you can consider using nutritional compounds to assist with this. Raynaud's disease can be classified as one of two types: primary (or idiopathic) and secondary (also called Raynaud's phenomenon). Raynaud's disease affects a small percentage of Americans. Women are more likely than men are to have the disorder. It's more common in people who live in colder climates. Treatment of Raynaud's disease depends on its severity and the presence or absence of associated conditions. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon may also be associated with exposure to vibrating tools such as jackhammers, which cause trauma to the hands and wrists. And it may be linked to certain drugs, such as chemotherapy agents, or to chemicals such as vinyl chloride.
Primary Raynaud's disease
Primary Raynaud's disease has no predisposing factor, is more mild, and causes fewer complications. About half of all cases of Raynaud's disease are of this type. Women are five times more likely than men to develop primary Raynaud's disease.
- Due to excessive vasoconstriction of digital arteries
- Vessels are normal between episodes
- Cooling of the hands results in intense vasoconstriction
- Flow in the digital arteries ceases at the critical closing temperature
- Reopening of blood vessels requires a rise in perfusion pressure
- Possible pathophysiological mechanisms include
- Increased sympathetic activity
- Increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimuli
- Increased number of alpha-receptors in the vessel wal
Secondary Raynaud's disease
Secondary Raynaud's disease is the same as primary Raynaud's disease, but occurs in individuals with a predisposing factor, usually a form of collagen vascular disease. What is typically identified as primary Raynaud's is later identified as secondary once a predisposing disease is diagnosed.
- Due to conditions associated with
- Abnormal vessel walls
- Increased blood viscosity
- Connective tissue disease
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- Cold haemagglutinaemia
- Thromboembolic disease
Causes of Raynauds Disease
Raynaud's disease are usually only observed in women. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of Raynaud's disease in men and women.
About one person in ten, will experience a complication called sclerodactyly. In sclerodactyly, the skin over the involved digits becomes tight, white, thick, smooth and shiny.
In people with Raynaud's disease, the extent of constriction is extreme, thus severely restricting blood flow. Attacks or their effects may be brought on or worsened by anxiety or emotional distress.
2. Sensitivity to GPld.
Treatment of Raynauds Disease
The best treatments for Raynaud's symptoms are preventative. Patients are advised to keep their entire body warm, and wear layered clothing to prevent heat loss. At night, an electric blanket can be used to keep warm.
People with severe cases of Raynaud's disease may need to be treated with medications to help keep the arterioles relaxed and dilated. Medications such as calcium-channel blockers, reserpine or nitroglycerin may be prescribed to relax artery walls and improve blood flow.Here is the list of the methods for treating Raynauds Disease :
- Avoid abrupt changes in temperature, especially going from warm air to air conditioning.
- Use mittens to take anything out of the freezer.
- Do not smoke.
- Some people find relief with drugs called alpha blockers, which counteract the actions of norepinephrine, a hormone that constricts blood vessels.
- Avoid excessive emotional stress.
- If you use birth control pills, you may wish to switch to another method of contraception because these drugs affect your circulation and may make you more prone to attacks.
- Sometimes, doctors need to amputate a finger or toe affected by Raynaud's in which the blood supply has been completely blocked and the tissue has developed gangrene.
- This class of drug, used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease, may worsen Raynaud's. Examples include metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), nadolol (Corgard) and propranolol (Inderal).
Causes of Raynauds Disease
Some are common Causes of Raynauds Disease :
- This is Raynaud's without an underlying disease or associated medical problem that could provoke vasospasm.
- Exposure to cold can be as simple as putting your hands under a faucet of running cold water, taking something out of the freezer or exposure to cold air
- Smoking constricts blood vessels and is a potential cause of Raynaud's.
- Regular operation of vibrating tools, as in construction
- Exposure to certain chemicals
- Raynaud's has also been linked to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and, rarely, to certain cancers.
- The illness occurs spontaneously, often in childhood or adolescence, without any underlying cause.
- Some workers in the plastics industry who are exposed to vinyl chloride develop an illness similar to scleroderma. .
- Other connective tissue disorders (eg Arthralgia or arthritis, Alopecia, skin rashes, cerebral symptoms, photosensitivity, dry eyes or mouth, mouth ulcers, muscle weakness, respiratory or cardiac problems).
Symptoms of Raynauds Disease
Some sign and Symptoms related to Raynauds Disease are as follows :
- Toes or fingers that change color when exposed to the cold
- Toes or fingers that change color upon pressure
- pain, sometimes with redness, which accompanies the return of blood circulation generally after 30 minutes to two hours.
- When exposed to cold temperatures, the oxygen supply to the fingertips, toes, and earlobes of Raynaud's disease patients is reduced and the skin turns pale or white (called pallor ) and becomes cold and numb.
- Numb, prickly feeling or stinging pain upon warming or relief of stress
- Skin redness or inflammation
- Tingling and slight loss of feeling or numbness in the fingers,
- Look bluish due to a lack of oxygen
- Redden and throb or tingle as blood returns to the affected area