Anemia condition arises when the supply of iron to the bone marrow falls short of that required
for the production of red cells (RBCs) and with that a decrease in the ability of the blood to,
carry oxygen to the periphery. Anemia happens in both young people and in old people, but older people are more likely to have other medical problems associated with anemia. On the other hand, focusing early on the question of production (e.g., via the reticulocyte count) may allow the clinician more rapidly to expose cases where multiple causes of anemia coexist.
Anemia is having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less hemoglobin than normal in the blood. This results in a reduced ability of blood to transfer oxygen to the tissues , causing hypoxia ; since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Anemia is a common blood disorder, affecting an estimated 3.4 million Americans. Women and people with chronic diseases are at increased risk of the condition. All are very different in their causes and treatments. Iron-deficiency anemia, the most common type, is very treatable with diet changes and iron supplements. Although there are over 400 different forms of anemia, this health profile will only address the three most common: iron-deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 anemia and folic acid deficiency. Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood.There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.
Anemia is a lower than normal number of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the blood, usually measured by a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin. This can lead to health problems because RBCs contain hemoglobin , which carries oxygen to the body's tissues. The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction ( hemolysis ) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis ). Basically, only 3 causes of anemia exist: blood loss, increased RBC destruction (hemolysis), and decreased production of RBCs. Each of these 3 causes includes a number of etiologies that require specific and appropriate therapy. Some forms of anemia -like the anemia that develops during pregnancy - are even considered normal. However, some types of anemia may present lifelong health problems.Anemias can also be caused by such conditions as external bleeding, chronic disease, pregnancy , alcoholism, bleeding disorders, infection and hereditary conditions.
Causes of Anemia
The common Causes of Anemia :
- Enzyme abnormalities of the glycolytic pathways.
- Vitamin B-12 deficiency.
- Defects of the RBC cytoskeleton.
- Anemia caused by decreased or faulty red blood cell production.
- There can be rupture of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia) due to antibodies clinging to the surface of the red cells, as in hemolytic disease of the newborn and in many other conditions.
- Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia.
- Iron deficiency anemia is most common in women who have heavy menstrual periods.
- Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells.
- These blood cells help your blood clot after a cut.
Symptoms of Causes of Anemia
Some are common Symptoms of Causes of Anemia :
- Numbness or coldness in your extremities.
- Shortness of breath.
- Chest pain.
- Cognitive problems.
- Rapid breathing.
- Pale or cold skin .
- Back, maroon or bloody stool.
- Weight loss.
- Trouble breathing .
Treatment of Anemia
- If you have stomach ulcers, you will want to avoid alcoholic beverages, aspirin, and medications such as ibuprofen (Advil), which can make ulcers worse and lead to bleeding.
- For example, if you have had a heart attack , you should be sure to take your heart medications because anemia can make the heart problem worse
- Avoid transfusions unless absolutely necessary, but they may be essential for patients with angina or severely compromised cardiopulmonary status.
- In some cases, blood transfusions and the medication erythropoietin will correct anemia.
- Pernicious anemia is treated with injections — often lifetime injections — of vitamin B-12.
- Drugs and chemicals capable of producing aplasia or a maturation arrest of erythroid precursors should be discontinued and avoided.
- Treatment of these various diseases can range from simple medication to chemotherapy to bone marrow transplantation.
- Corticosteroids are useful in the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
- Administer folic acid because active hemolysis may consume folate and cause megaloblastosis.